The seminal body of my work begins with pieces I thought of as reclining figures as landscape; these compressive and static ground plane works came form visions of the Catskill Mountains panorama which I saw when I lived on Bud and Marlene Wertheim’s farm in Livingston Manor during the early 1970’s.

The running horizontal linearity of these soon began to diminish and works, which relied on, the addition of some vertical structures began to emerge. these were still essentially static energy studies; that is, objects which were dominated by compressive horizontal structures; they were still gravity-inspired works which continued focus on my interest in the reclining figure, the landscape and the dump, stack and pro-gravity of my most influential teacher, Albert Terris. However the vertical compaction of these ground plane works began to yearn for more heroic and energized representations. Ideas of snowshoes and dominating horizontal elements gave way to more vertical and ascendant pieces, as I now needed to express a more vigorous quality; I was searching for a swagger. From pancakes on a griddle I went to tall cakes; I called these works vertical landscapes or cliffs and then simply crowns. they were characterized by a series of taller and rounded works which were like hats, charlotte russes or alpine and stony structures which were relational to the early loping mountain works but which now provided a bursting thrust.

In addition to the concerns of the form and content, I found that through my art I could pay homage to other persons or events that had given me inspiration, insight and pleasure; these crowns were often made with that intention. As a result, crowns commemorating the biblical Noah, Mozart and James Cagney were made. other ceremonious pieces came forth using similar vocabularies to reflect my reverence for Lester Young, Louis Armstrong, Jellyroll Morton, Gaston Lachaise, Alberto Giacometti, and Harpo Marx.

My chief focus recently has been on bell sculptures. Perhaps an early interest in bells was revealed in the construction of the crowns with their near regular circular bases. However, the conscious decision to make these works was sourced in my interest in music, the need to make objects for meditation and for continuing celebratory purpose.